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      Χίος (5/3/2006 v.1) Chios (12/14/2009 v.1)

Author(s) : Sarantakou Efi , Misailidou Anna , Beneki Eleni , Warlas Michael (4/20/2005)
Translation : Daskalaki Photini , Papadaki Irene , Dovletis Onoufrios , Panourgia Klio

For citation: Sarantakou Efi, Misailidou Anna, Beneki Eleni, Warlas Michael, "Chios",
Cultural Portal of the Aegean Archipelago

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The Chians go everywhere in pairs

The most widely known saying about Chians is that they go everywhere in pairs. According to anecdotes, the Chians carried one another on their backs so that they wouldn't have to carry Turks. This story seems implausible as there were only a few Turks in Chios and it is rather improbable that they had such a behavior. It is more possible that the saying refers to the practice of monks -and later merchants- to travel in groups of two or more, so that they could watch over each other or protect the interests of the partners of their companies, which were sometimes conflicting. The most typical example of this practice is the story of Stamatis Petros, who accompanied Korais in Amsterdam and kept detailed records, even of his personal life, that sent to their company's partners on a regular basis.

The myth about the foundation of Nea Moni

According to the monastic tradition that was recorded in an undated manuscript, the "Greek Memorandum", three ascetics from mountain Provatio found, between 1034 and 1041, an icon of Virgin Mary on a myrtus, in the place the monastery was built. The icon kept returning, by some miracle, to its original place until the foundation of the monastery. According to tradition, of the three holy men that founded Nea Moni, Nikitas, Ioannis and Joseph, the first two foretold to Constantinos Monomachos, who was exiled in Mytilene since 1035, that he would rise to the imperial throne. Constantinos gave them his ring, which they presented to him when he became emperor and he rewarded them by building the monastery's katholikon and giving Nea Moni financial support and privileges.

The myth in this story, and the fact that it follows the pattern of medieval religious myths about monasteries' foundations does not discredit the fact that it was an interpretation of the emperors' generosity accepted by ascetics and believers.

Recipe for cosmetic, from formulary written in hand around 1850, from Spinos' pharmacy in the Chora of Chios.

«Ενός γροσίου αμυγδαλόλαδο, δυο δράμια κερί της μέλισσας, δυο κούκουδα μαστίχα τα βάζετε εις ένα κιασεδάκι και βράζετε ένα τσουκάλι νερό και βάζετε το κεσεδάκι μέσα να λιώσουν και το τρίβετε και ρίπτετε ολίγον ροδόσταμον μέσα. Έπειτα πάλιν χύνεις το ροδόσταμο εις ένα φλυτζάνι το δουλεύεις και βάζεις λίγο λίγο το ροδόσταμο μέσα έως ότου να πήξει, Έπειτα; Το αλείφεις εις ένα κιεσέ όλην την αλοιφή και βάζεις ένα πιάτο γιασεμιά και τον πικουπίζεις [=αναποδογυρίζεις] τον κεσέ και γίνεται πολύ ωραίον. Όταν την ψήνεις την αλοιφή να λέγεις: αν είσαι φίλος να διαβείς κι αν είσαι εχθρός να σκάσεις και αν είσαι κακομέλετος να πέσεις να σκοντάψεις».

Source: Sevasti Haviara-Karahaliou, "Γιατροπορέματα των ομματιών και άλλα κείμενα", ed. Andreas Fr. Michailidis, (Chios 2003), p. 132.



1. Position- environment

1.1. Geographic division

1.2. Geology

1.3. Morphology

1.3.1. Caves of Chios

1.4. Shape, coasts and beaches

1.5. Climate

1.6. Flora

1.7. Fauna

2. History

2.1. Prehistory – Antiquity

2.2. Byzantine period – Genoan occupation

2.3. Ottoman period

2.3.1. 19th c.

2.4. 20th century

2.5. The Destruction of Chios

2.6. Refugees in Chios

2.7. Commerce and Chian diaspora

3. Archaeological sites and monuments

3.1. Castle of Chios

3.2. Emporio

3.2.1. The archaic settlement and the temple

3.2.2. The citadel

3.3. Volissos

3.4. Anavatos

3.5. Daskalopetra (Teacher’s Stone)

3.6. Nea Moni

3.6.1. The construction of Nea Moni and the set-up of monastic life

3.6.2. Architecture and decoration

3.6.3. Additions and damages

3.6.4. Nea Moni as an architectural and social examble

3.6.5. Nea Moni’s economy

3.6.6. From a monastery to a cultural shrine

3.6.7. The monasteries’ zones of influence

3.7. Other temples

4. Architecture

4.1. In general

4.2. The medieval villages of south Chios

4.3. The city of Chios and Kampos

4.4. North Chios

4.5. Chios’ architecture after the Ottoman occupation

4.6. Medieval Mastichochoria

5. Museums

5.1. Archaeological Museum

5.2. Chios Byzantine Museum (Mecitiye Camii)

5.3. Korais Library – Folclore Museum – Argenti Gallery

5.4. Chios Maritime Museum

5.5. Museum of Natural History and Physics at the 1st High School of Chios

5.6. Chios Public Art Gallery

5.7. Museum of Nikos Gialouris

6. Homerion Cultural Center

7. Folk culture - folk art

7.1. Pottery

7.2. Woodcarving - sculpture

7.3. Religion - tradition

7.4. Happenings

8. Chios’ saints

8.1. St. Markella

8.2. St. Isidoros and Chios’ mastic

9. Chian shipping

10. Mastic

10.1. Mastic's biology-geography

10.2. Production process- time

10.3. Chios Mastiha Growers Association and mastic companies' development

10.4. Products and uses

10.5. History of mastic and its consumption: a pendulum between East and West

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